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Many professionals (e.g. teachers, administrators, etc.) attending to adolescent receive only little training in youth psychopathology. For these service providers who are in constant interaction with adolescents, mental health usually remains highly abstract and theoretical. This lack of training leads to reactive, punitive, control/containment interventions that do not work to establish positive behaviours or improve learning.

Loney, B.R., Frick, P.J. (2003). Structured Diagnostic Interviewing. In C.R. Reynolds & R.W. Kamphaus Eds: Handbook of Psychological and Educational Assessment of Children: Personality, Behavior and Context, Second Edition, (pp. 235-247). New York, NY: Guilford.

BERGERON, L., BERTHIAUME, C., ST.-GEORGES, M., PICHÉ, G., SMOLLA, N., (2013). Reliability, Validity and Clinical Utility of the Dominic Interactive: a DSM-based Self-report Screen for School-aged Children. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. (Submitted).
Kuijpers, R, C. W. M., Otten, R., Krol, N. P. C. M., Vermulst, A., Rutger C., Engels, M. E. (2013). The Reliability and Validity of the Dominic Interactive: A Computerized Child Report Instrument for Mental Health Problems. Child and Youth Care Forum, Online 27 July 2012. Pages 1-18.
ABSTRACT
Background: Children and youths’ self-report of mental health problems is considered essential but complicated. Objective: This study examines the psychometric properties of the Dominic Interactive, a computerized DSM-IV based self-report questionnaire and explores informant correspondence. Methods: The Dominic Interactive was administered to 214 Dutch children, 6–11 year old, 122 attended special education schools and 92 children attended public schools. Within 2 weeks 155 children were reassessed. Parents of 211 children completed a paper version of the Dominic Interactive. Results: The findings showed moderate to good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, although stability increased with age. Factor structure concerning generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder displayed ambiguous results. Comparing special education with public school children revealed that both parents and children in special education reported significantly more problems on almost all scales. The results on informant correspondence revealed that discrepancies in reports were not consistent across individual pairs; they were due to a few extreme cases. Eliminating these cases increased the agreement in reports. Conclusions: Although more research is needed to determine the value of the Dominic Interactive, the Dominic Interactive has the potential to contribute with its unique features to the existing self-report instruments for screening and assessing child mental health.
de la Osa N., Ezpeleta L., Granero R., Olaya B., Doménech J.M.(2011). Diagnostic value of the Dominic Interactive Assessment with children exposed to intimate partner violence. Psicothema, 23(4):648-53.
ABSTRACT
This article reports on the diagnostic validity of the Dominic Interactive Assessment (DIA) in a sample of Spanish children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The study participants included 55 children aged between 6 and 11 years whose mothers visited an IPV counseling centre. Psychopathology and functional impairment were used as the main criteria for assessing predictive and discriminative accuracy, as well as incremental validity, of DIA. The results indicate that DIA permits obtaining useful information from children. This information improves the prediction and validity of the process of clinical assessment of children exposed to IPV. Children's self-reports could prove effective in identifying cases in this high-risk population when developmentally adequate instruments and functional criteria are used.
BERGERON, L., SMOLLA, N., VALLA, J.P., ST.-GEORGES, M., BERTHIAUME, C., PICHE, G., BARBE, C. (2010). Psychometric properties of a pictorial instrument for assessing psychopathology in youths aged 12 to 15 years: The Dominic Interactive for Adolescents. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55, (4): 211-221.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Over the last 15 years, adequate psychometric properties of the different versions of the Dominic led to the development of the Dominic Interactive for Adolescents (DIA). The DIA is a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fourth Edition, Text Revision–based self-administered computerized pictorial instrument for assessing the most frequent mental disorders in adolescents aged 12 to 15 years. Our study aims to verify the internal consistency, the test–retest estimate of reliability, and the criterion-related validity of this instrument.

Conclusion: Because no informant can be considered the criterion standard of psychopathology, the interview with adolescents regarding their own symptoms is necessary. Findings of this study reasonably support adequate psychometric properties of the DIA in youths aged 12 to15 years. Clinical Implications: The Dominic Interactive for Adolescents (DIA) is a new DSM-based self-report measure with adequate psychometric properties in young adolescents. The DIA quickly (about 15 minutes) provides DSM-IV-TR approximates allowing clinicians to orient more in-depth investigation. The DIA’s brief administration-time allows it to be used in conjunction with other measures during the same session.

Limitations: The DIA is not sufficient to determine definite diagnoses, clinical judgment is always necessary in decision-making about intervention. The lower cut-off may overestimate possible mental health problems in adolescents from the community. The unrepresentative sample limits the generalization of results to any target population of adolescents.

Key words: Dominic Interactive for Adolescents, self-report, DSM-IV-TR mental disorders, reliability, validity

RÉSUMÉ

Propriétés psychométriques d’un instrument pictographique d’évaluation de la psychopathologie chez les jeunes de 12 à 15 ans: Le Dominique Interactif pour Adolescents.

Objectifs : Les propriétés psychométriques satisfaisantes des versions antérieures du Dominique ont mené au développement du Dominique Interactif pour Adolescents (DIA). Le DIA est une mesure pictographique, informatisée et auto-administrée qui évalue les troubles mentaux les plus fréquents chez les adolescents de 12 à 15 ans, selon la symptomatologie du DSM-IV-TR. Cette étude a pour but de vérifier la cohérence interne, la fidélité par test-retest et la validité de critère de cet instrument.

Méthode : L’échantillon total incluait 607 adolescents de la région de Montréal (population en général : 465; population clinique : 142). Des coefficients alpha de Cronbach évaluaient la cohérence interne alors que des kappas et des coefficients de corrélation intraclasse (CCIs) estimaient la fidélité par test-retest. Deux critères ont été retenus comme indices de validité du DIA : le jugement clinique sur la présence ou l’absence des symptômes (attribution de cotes indépendantes par trois juges) et les références d’adolescents en cliniques externes de pédopsychiatrie.

Résultat : Pour la majorité des échelles des symptômes du DIA, les coefficients alpha de Cronbach variaient de ,69 à ,89, les kappas étaient ≥ ,50 et les CCIs se situaient entre ,78 et ,87. La validité de critère a été démontrée pour les symptômes, les échelles de symptômes et les catégories définies par les seuils du DIA.

Conclusion : Puisqu’aucun informateur ne représente le critère absolu pour définir la psychopathologie il est nécessaire d’interroger les adolescents sur leurs symptômes. Cette étude suggère que le DIA possède des propriétés psychométriques satisfaisantes chez les adolescents de 12 à 15 ans.

SHOJAEI, T., WAZANA, A., PITROU, I., GILBERT, F., BERGERON, L., VALLA, J.P., KOVESS-MASFETY, V. (2009). Psychometric properties of the Dominic Interactive in a large French sample. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54 (11), 767-776.
Objectives. To examine the psychometric properties of the Dominic Interactive in young children in a different cultural environment than Quebec.
Methods. 100 schools and 25 children (6-11 years old) per school were randomly selected in a large French region. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires to children (Dominic Interactive), parents (socio-demographic characteristics, mental health services use) and teachers (school achievement). To assess DI psychometric properties were examined: a) the distribution of each DI diagnosis; b) comorbidity between diagnoses; c) alpha coefficients measuring internal consistency; d) correlates of psychopathologies with socio-demographic status and healthcare services use. Estimates of DI properties were compared to those from a sample of community children in Québec.
Results. Complete data were available for 1,274 children (54.4%). Performances estimated for each DI diagnosis of the French version were good with Cronbach alpha coefficients ranging from 0.62 to 0.89. Psychometric properties and comorbidity were consistent with the version from Quebec.
Conclusions. Satisfactory psychometric properties added to other known advantages (children enjoy the activity, parents approve it, cost-effectiveness) and easy cultural adaptability suggest to consider the use of the Dominic Interactive in diverse cultures for epidemiological studies.
SHILLINGSBURG, M.A., SHAPIRO, S, K, RAGSDALE, K, SIKORSKI, J. (2008) An Exploratory Study of the Influences on Response Stability of the Interactive Dominic/Terry Questionnaire. Graduate Student Journal of Psychology 10: 29-37
The Dominic Interactive is a pictorial structured child interview screener with features to address developmental issues that are often problematic for young informants. It includes items depicting nonsymptomatic activities as well as activities demonstrating DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) symptoms of several childhood disorders. We examined the reliability of the Interactive Dominic/Terry, as well as potential factors influencing response stability, with a sample of 59 inpatient adolescents. Response stability refers to the tendency for the same response to be given over time. Analyses yielded good to excellent reliability for the majority of the scales. Response stability was similar regardless of age, gender, or race. Results also suggested an inverse relationship between Verbal IQ and rate of response change. Overall, these preliminary results suggest that this instrument is suitable for children and adolescents of different racial backgrounds, although the impact of intelligence requires further investigation.
LINARES SCOTT, T, J., SHORT, E.J., SINGER, L.T., RUSS, S.W., MINNES. S. (2006). Psychometric properties of the Dominic interactive Assessment, A Computerized Self-report for Children. Assessment, 13, (1), 16-26.
The reliability and validity of the Dominic Interactive (DI) assessment were evaluated. The DI is a computerized self-report measure for children, which assesses symptom presence for seven DSM-IV diagnoses. The participants were 322 children (169 cocaine exposed, 153 noncocaine exposed) who were recruited at birth for a prospective longitudinal study. At 6 years of age, measures of self-report, parent report, and observational data were collected. Moderate to excellent internal consistencies on the DI were found for the total sample as well as for subsamples based on cocaine status and gender. Concurrent validity correlations between DI scales and the Child Behavior Checklist, Affect in Play Scale, a modified Conners' Teachers Rating Scale, and the Parenting Stress Index were examined. Significant relationships among scales were more apt to be among comparisons that assessed externalizing behaviours. Overall, low correlations were obtained, which are comparable to other studies that evaluate agreement between child and parent report of behaviour.
Keywords : Dominic Interactive: child self-report; cocaine exposure; CBCL
CHRISMAN, A., EGGER, H., COMPTON, S.N., CURRY, J., GOLDSTON, D.B. (2006) Assessment of Childhood Depression. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 11: 111-116
Background: Depression as a disorder in childhood began to be increasingly recognised in the 1970s. Epidemiologic community and clinic-based studies have characterised the prevalence, clinical course, and complications of this illness throughout childhood and adolescence into adulthood. This paper reviews two instruments for assessing depression in prepubertal children - the Dominic Interactive and The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Both instruments are useful in screening for psychiatric disorders and reliably identifying the presence of depressive symptoms in young children.
SMOLLA, N., VALLA, J.P., BERGERON, L., BERTHIAUME, C., ST-GEORGES, M. (2004). Development and reliability of a pictorial mental disorders screen for young adolescents. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49: 828-837
Objective: To report psychometric data from preliminary studies on a pictorial screener for the most frequent Axis I youth mental disorders: the "Adolescent Dominic" (AD). Methods: Based on DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria, 113 picture items were created and assessed for comprehension (sample 1, n=114; sample 2, n=40) and reliability (sample 3, n=128) with community adolescents aged 12-16. The kappa statistic was used to estimate test-retest reliability of symptoms, criteria and diagnoses, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for symptom and criterion scores. Internal consistency of symptom scores was assessed with the alpha coefficient. Results: 54.4% of kappas for symptoms were higher than 0.60 while only 2% were poor; ICCs for symptom scores yielded higher values (0.81-0.89) than for criterion scores (0.51-0.86). Internal consistency of symptom scores ranged from .52 to .83. Kappas for diagnoses ranged between 0.52 and 0.76. Conclusions: Symptom reliability compared favourably with data from other assessment interviews of youth mental disorders. Following these positive results, a computerized DSM-IV version of the AD has put focus on the assessment of symptoms and is currently under testing for reliability and criterion validity. Clinical implications: The Adolescent Dominic is a DSM-based standardized screener with demonstrated reliability with community adolescents as young as 12 years of age. The instrument can serve as a take-off point for clinical interviewing, and a complement to usual clinical practice. It could encourage the expression of the adolescent's own concerns and thereby help clinicians identify priorities for intervention. Limitations: Low prevalence of mental disorders in community samples is the main limitation of studies of this type. Not all DSM mental disorders are assessed by the AD. Cut-off scores with clinical samples have yet to be established, as well as standardisation with a large sample to provide normative data. Results may not be generalized to adolescents physically or cognitively impaired, or with learning disabilities. Psychometric properties are population specific and should be interpreted considering the characteristics of the population from which the samples were drawn.
Key Words: adolescents, pictorial assessment, mental disorders, reliability, community samples
DUGRÉ, S., TRUDEL, M., (2003). Approche transversale de profils d'adaptation en santé mentale chez des filles et des garçons de 6-9 ans : une analyse typologique. Canadian Journal of Education, 28, 1-29.
Dans le but de développer une compréhension intégrée des difficultés d'adaptation de l'enfant dans une population générale, une typologie des profils d'adaptation selon une perspective multidimensionnelle a été identifiée auprès de 673 élèves de classes régulières qui ont procédé à leur autoévaluation au moyen du Dominique-R (Valla et al., 1994,1997). La démarche de classification utilise des analyses en regroupements hiérarchiques (cluster analysis) pour illustrer différents sous-groupes de sujets sur la base des similitudes de profil. Une série d'analyses a permis de sélectionner de 5 à 6 profils en fonction de l'âge et de l'appartenance sexuelle: Bonne adaptation et Adaptation moyenne, Symptômes intériorisés, Symptômes extériorisés et Symptômes mixtes. Les profils retrouvés sont généralement nuancés quand l'enfant s'évalue et les résultats portant sur une approche différentielle selon le sexe et l'âge illustrent des profils d'adaptation propres à chacun des sous-groupes. L'approche utilisée, comparée à l'approche traditionnelle apporte des nuances qui permettent de mieux comprendre l'agencement des différents symptômes qui ponctuent le développement de l'enfant. Les implications théoriques et pratiques de l'approche méthodologique sont discutées.

The purpose of this study was to build on the emerging effort to produce a typology of child behavioral adjustment. The children (302 girls, 354 boys) aged six to nine years responded to a mental health self-report: The Dominic-R (Valla et al., 1994, 1997). The proposed typology is based upon a multidimensional conceptualization and employs the Ward method of cluster analysis to derive specific subtypes that represent both normal and problematic profiles. The database used in developing this typology includes males and females. Five to six types of mental health profiles were identified: Good adjustment, average adjustment, internalized, externalized, and mixed behavior problems. Clusters indicated differences on the basis of age and gender. The treatment implications of these findings are being discussed.
CHAN CHEE, C., KOVESS, V., VALLA, J.P., ALLES-JARDEL, M., GRAS-VINCENDON, A., MARTIN, C., PIQUET, C., VANTALON, V. (2003). Validation d'un questionnaire interactif sur la santé mentale des enfants de 6 à 11 ans. Annales Médico Psychologiques, 161 :439-445. (French validation of a mental Health Interactive Questionnaire for 6 to 11 years-old children) In French.
Le questionnaire «Dominique Interactif» présenté sous forme de bande dessinée interactive sur CD-Rom est un instrument de détection de troubles intériorisés et extériorisés chez les enfants de 6 à 11 ans. Les images illustrent des situations concrètes qui font référence à des concepts abstraits de troubles mentaux les plus fréquents basés sur la classification du DSM-IV. Sa validation en France a été conduite chez 253 enfants des écoles volontaires d'Aix en Provence et 150 enfants consultant dans quatre services de pédopsychiatrie. Dans cette population clinique, le diagnostic clinique a aussi été porté après entretien avec l'enfant. Le " Dominique Interactif " permet d'effectuer la classification des enfants en trois catégories selon l'importance des scores obtenus. La prévalence des troubles était significativement plus élevée dans la population clinique que dans la population générale. La simplicité d'utilisation, la rapidité de passation et le côté ludique du Dominique Interactif en font un instrument bien accepté par les enfants et les professionnels.
Mots-clés : enfant, questionnaire interactif, troubles intériorisés, troubles extériorisés, validation.

The «Dominic Interactive» is a computerized pictorial questionnaire used for the assessment of 6 to 11 year-old children's mental health. The pictures illustrate the abstract emotional and behavioural content of most frequent mental health problems based on DSM-IV symptomatology. The CD-ROM-based "Dominic Interactive" was given to 253 community children from voluntary Aix-en-Provence schools and to 150 children from four child psychiatric clinics. In the child psychiatric clinics referred children also received clinical diagnoses. Prevalence estimates and symptom scores yielded by the "Dominic Interactive" in referred children were significantly higher than those in general population. Since the " Dominic Interactive " is like a playful practical game of very easy use, its acceptability by both children and professionals was excellent.
Key words: assessment, child, externalised disorders, interactive questionnaire, internalised disorders.
VALLA, JP, KOVESS, V, CHAN CHEE, C, BERTHIAUME, C, VANTALON, V, PIQUET, C, GRAS-VINCENDON, A, MARTIN, C, ALLES-JARDEL, M (2002). A French Study of the Dominic Interactive. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 37: 441-448.
Introduction : The Dominic Interactive was developed in North America to assess child's perception of her/his own symptoms, which is critical to balance parents and school professionals perception. It is a computerized, DSM-IV-based pictorial questionnaire akin to a video game, for children aged 6 to 11. A strengths and competencies scale displays positive situations. Most children complete the Dominic Interactive 90 situations within 10 to 15 minutes. Objective: Because of the cultural differences between North American and French children, a study of the appropriateness of the instrument to assess French children was required. Methods: The CD-ROM-based Dominic Interactive was completed by 253 community children, and to 150 children from outpatient clinics in four French cities. The latter also received clinical diagnoses. Prevalence estimates yielded by the Dominic Interactive in the general population and referred children, relationships between prevalence estimates based on the Dominic Interactive and clinical judgments, and differences between Dominic Interactive scores in sub-samples of children with and without a clinical diagnosis were studied. Results : Significant differences between clinically referred and non-referred children were found for every diagnosis, and between Dominic Interactive scores of referred children with and without a clinical diagnosis with the exception of Oppositional Disorder. Parental acceptability of the instrument was never a problem, children like it, and clinicians comments were positive. Discussion : Reference and clinical judgment both indicate that the Dominic Interactive is appropriate to assess child mental health in France. Clinical judgment discrepancies between sites and small numbers are the limitations of this study. Conclusion : The instrument performed well in the French context. The potential advantages of using the Dominic Interactive (children enjoy the activity, parents approve of it, it is relatively cost-effective, etc.) suggests its applicability in other settings.
DUGRÉ, S., TRUDEL, M.& VALLA, J.P. (2001). Considérations individuelles et culturelles en santé mentale des enfants : le Dominique à l'épreuve. Revue canadienne de psycho-éducation, 30, 119-138.
L'étude présente les résultats obtenus auprès de 334 enfants français et québécois de 6-9 ans suite à l'auto-évaluation de leur santé mentale au moyen du Dominique-R (Valla, 1997). La passation collective a été privilégiée et les qualités métrologiques se comparent avantageusement à celles obtenues en passation individuelle. L'analyse factorielle permet de constater que, contrairement à ce qui se ressort lorsque les adultes mesurent la santé mentale de l'enfant, quand les enfants s'évaluent la dépression corrèle davantage avec les troubles extériorisés. Les garçons présentent davantage de problèmes extériorisés et les filles de problèmes intériorisés cependant, la dépression ne les distingue pas. Quelles que soient les variables considérées (âge, genre ou contexte culturel), les symptômes les plus fréquents portent sur l'anxiété et l'angoisse de séparation. On retrouve d'importantes différences entre les garçons et les filles en France ce qui n'est pas le cas au Québec. Avec l'âge, les enfants déclarent plus de symptômes mais seuls les troubles extériorisés se révèlent significatifs. Une attention particulière est consacrée à l'analyse de la comorbidité qui s'avère très présente chez les garçons.
Mots-clés: développement, enfant, santé mentale, auto-évaluation, comorbidité

The study presents results obtained from 334 French and Quebec children aged six to nine years who responded to a self-report mental health instrument, the Dominic-R (Valla, 1997). Group assessments were used instead of the usual individual assessment and very similar psychometric results were obtained. Factor analyses revealed differences between adult-assessment and self-report applications of the instrument. Contrary to adult-assessment, self-reports produced an association between depression and externalizing symptoms. Boys reported more externalizing symptoms while girls presented more internalizing symptoms, however, there were no sex differences in terms of depression. Regardless of age, gender or cultural background, the most often reported symptoms were anxiety and separation anxiety. Overall, there was an increase with age in children's reported symptoms, but only externalizing symptoms increased significantly. Sex differences were marked for the French sample but not for the Quebec sample. The study also explores co-morbidity issues, particularly among boys.
VALLA, JP, BERGERON, L, SMOLLA, N (2000). The Dominic-R: A pictorial interview for 6-to 11-year-old children, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 85-93.
Objective: To review the Dominic-R and the Terry questionnaires, respectively for white and African-American children, both DSM-lll-R-based, and more recent DSM-IV-based computerized versions. Method: Five papers describing the development, content, validation studies, and establishment of the diagnostic cutpoints of these instruments are reviewed. The instruments are pictorial, fully structured, and designed to assess mental disorders in children 6 to 11 years of age. Symptom descriptions complement the visual stimulus, providing better information-processing than visual or auditory stimuli alone. Cognitive immaturity of young children bars frequency, duration, and age-of-onset measurements, restricting correspondence with DSM criteria. DSM-IV(computerized versions) and DSM-III-R (paper versions) disorders being assessed include specific (simple) phobias, separation anxiety, generalized anxiety (overanxious), depression/dysthymia, attention-deficit hyperactivity, oppositional defiant, and conduct disorder. Results: Test-retest reliability of symptoms and symptom scores and criterion validity against clinical judgment support the visual-auditory combination of stimuli to assess child mental health. Conclusion: Intended for clinical, epidemiological, and screening purposes, these instruments are short and simple. Although it only approximates DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria, the pictorial format permits young children to be reliable informants about their mental health.
MURPHY, DA, CANTWELL, C, JORDAN, DD, LEE, MB, COOLEY-QUILLE, MR, LAHEY, BB (2000). Test-retest reliability of Dominic anxiety and depression items among young children, Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 22, 257-270.
Assessing anxiety and depressive symptoms through direct interviewing of young children has been found to be particularly difficult utilizing standard interview methods. Test-retest reliability of selected anxiety and depression items from the revised Dominic (Valla, Bergeron, Bidaut-Russell, St-Georges, & Gaudet, 1997), a cartoon-based questionnaire based on DSM diagnostic criteria, was investigated among two geographically diverse samples (Los Angeles and St. Louis; N = 37). Overall, kappas were higher for the anxiety items than for the depression items. In both cities the sample included clinic and non-clinic cases of African-American, Hispanic/Latino, and Caucasian children age 6-8; kappas for the anxiety and depression items were higher among the clinic cases than for the community cases. Given the need for psychometrically sound measures for culturally diverse samples of children, this initial report suggests that the use of selected Dominic items holds promise as a cartoon-based assessment of young children.
VALLA, J.P., BERGERON, L., ST-GEORGES, M., BERTHIAUME, C. (2000) Le Dominique Interactif : présentation, cadre conceptuel, propriétés psychométriques, limites, et utilisation. Revue Canadienne de Psycho-éducation, 29 : 327-347.
Le Dominique Interactif est une bande dessinée interactive multimédia basée sur le DSM-IV, conçue pour évaluer la santé mentale des enfants de 6 à 11 ans. Les enfants répondent eux-mêmes avec la souris. La plupart le complètent en 10 à 15 minutes. Simple et attrayant pour l'enfant, le Dominique Interactif montre 90 situations. Une échelle de Forces et Compétences illustre des situations positives. L'instrument évalue les 7 problèmes de santé mentale les plus fréquents chez les enfants (anxiété généralisée, angoisse de séparation, phobies spécifiques, dépression, hyperactivité/trouble de l'attention, opposition, problèmes de conduite). L'ordinateur fournit instantanément les résultats. La première version papier du Dominique a été développée en 1981. À cause des limites de l'instrument, des critiques suscitées par le DSM-IV, et de l'immaturité et des caractéristiques développementales des enfants, le Dominique Interactif propose trois catégories de psychopathologie : probablement absente, peut-être présente, et probablement présente. La méthode graphique permet aux enfants d'être des informateurs fiables sur leur propre santé mentale dès l'âge de 6 ans. Le Dominique Interactif est utile en clinique, en milieu scolaire, et pour la recherche épidémiologique et évaluative. En donnant la parole aux enfants, il favorise l'identification des problèmes intériorisés et apporte une vision nuancée des enfants.

The Dominic Interactive is a computerized, interactive cartoon with a running time of 10 to 15 minutes, specially designed to assess the mental health in children 6 to 11 years of age. Ninety situations are displayed. Children themselves respond by using the mouse. Based on DSM-IV, the Dominic Interactive screens for the 7 most frequent mental health problems in primary school children: attention-deficit/hyperactivity, oppositional, conduct, depressive, separation anxiety, generalized anxiety disorders and specific phobias. A strength and competencies scale displays positive situations. Results are provided immediately. The first paper version of the Dominique questionnaire was developed in 1981. Because of the instrument's limitations, DSM-IV limitations, and cognitive limitations and developmental characteristics of children, a three categories rating of psychopathology has been developed : mental health problems are either not likely, possible, or likely. The pictorial approach allows children to be reliable informants about their own mental health from age 6. The Dominic Interactive is useful for clinical assessment, school screening and epidemiological and evaluation research. Because it allows children to speak for themselves, the Dominic Interactive favors identification of internalizing disorders and brings about a balanced view of children mental health problems.
BIDAUT-RUSSELL, M, VALLA, JP, THOMAS, JM, BERGERON, L, LAWSON, E (1998). Reliability of the Terry: A mental health cartoon-like screener for African-American children, Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 28, 249-263.
Test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Terry, a cartoon-based child mental health screener developed for African-American children, were measured in 36 boys (age 5 to 13) in a test-retest design. Reliability of the diagnosis (0.70 less than or equal to k less than or equal to 0.75) was good for ADHD, ODD, CD, and OAD, and excellent for MDD and SAD. Because of low base-rate, no kappa value was calculated for SPh. Both test-retest agreement, and reliability of the symptom scale (0.75 less than or equal to ICC less than or equal to 0.80) were very good for all 7 diagnoses. Internal consistency according to symptom scale (0.78 less than or equal to Cronbach a less than or equal to 0.90), was moderate for OAD, good for SPh, MDD, SAD, CD, and ODD, and excellent for ADHD. The Terry is a culturally-sensitive questionnaire with good reliability.
VALLA, JP, BERGERON, L, BIDAUT-RUSSELL, M ST-GEORGES, M, GAUDET, N (1997). Reliability of the Dominic-R: A young child mental health questionnaire combining visual and auditory stimuli, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 38, 717-724.
Reliability of the Dominic-R, a questionnaire combining visual and auditory stimuli, was tested in 340 community children aged 6 to 11 years. Test-retest reliability of symptoms of, and of symptom scores of, DSM-III-R disorders including simple phobias, separation anxiety disorder, overanxious disorder, depression/dysthymia, attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder was assessed. Most symptoms yielded kappa values greater than .40, and ICCs ranged from .74 to .81. In conclusion, reliability of the Dominic-R compares favorably with that of other child assessment questionnaires.
VALLA, JP, BERGERON, L, BERUBE, H, GAUDET, N, ST-GEORGES, M (1994). A structured pictorial questionnaire to assess DSM-III-R-based diagnoses in children (6-11 years) - Development, validity, and reliability, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 403-423.
This paper presents a structured pictorial instrument, the Dominic questionnaire, to assess mental disorders in 6 to 11 year-old children. Ninety-nine drawings represent situations corresponding to DSM-III-R based ADHD, CD, ODD, MDD, SAD, OAD, and SPh. However, cognitive limitation of 6 to 11 year-old children do not allow for time-related measurement. The instrument takes 15-20 min to administer. Reliability and validity of the Dominic questionnaire were studied in Parent DISC-2 positive and negative outpatient and general population samples and against clinical judgment. The pictorial approach provides acceptable test-retest reliability and the instrument makes standardized assessment possible for children as young as 6 years of age.


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